UNDERSTANDING SPALLED CONCRETE
Time: 05:57
Watch this easy-to-understand explanation of what causes concrete spalling, from concrete expert Chris Sullivan.

The water to cement ratio compares how much water versus cement is used in a concrete mix. A low water cement ratio leads to stronger concrete, but is more difficult to work with.

## HOW TO CALCULATE WATER CEMENT RATIO

The water to cement ratio is calculated by dividing the water in one cubic yard of the mix ( in pounds) by the cement in the mix (in pounds). So if one cubic yard of the mix has 235 pounds of water and 470 pounds of cement- the mix is a .50 water to cement ratio.

If the mix lists the water in gallons, multiply the gallons by 8.33 to find how many pounds there are in the mix.

Not a math person? Hire a concrete contractor near you to make sure you get high-quality concrete.

## USE A LOW WATER TO CEMENT RATIO

A low water to cement ratio is the number one issue effecting concrete quality.

Low water cement ratio impacts all of the desired properties of concrete listed in the desired properties of concrete section.

Use a maximum .50 water to cement ratio when concrete is exposed to freezing and thawing in a moist condition or to deicing chemicals per the 1997 Uniform Building Code. (Table 19-A-2)

Use a maximum .45 water to cement ratio for concrete with severe or very severe sulfate conditions per the 1997 Uniform Building Code (Table 19-A-4)

Water permeability increases exponentially when concrete has a water cement ratio greater than .50.

Durability increases the less permeable the concrete mix is.

Strength improves with lower water cement ratios. A .45 water cement ratio most likely will hit 4500 psi (pounds per square inch) or greater. A .50 water cement ratio will likely reach 4000 psi or greater.